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Riesgo cardiovascular en una cohorte de 1.9 millones de pacientes

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Type 2 diabetes and incidence of cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study in 1·9 million people : The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/landia/article/PIIS2213-8587(14)70219-0/abstract?rss=yes
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Background
The contemporary associations of type 2 diabetes with a wide range of incident cardiovascular diseases have not been compared. We aimed to study associations between type 2 diabetes and 12 initial manifestations of cardiovascular disease.
Methods
We used linked primary care, hospital admission, disease registry, and death certificate records from the CALIBER programme, which links data for people in England recorded in four electronic health data sources. We included people who were (or turned) 30 years or older between Jan 1, 1998, to March 25, 2010, who were free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. The primary endpoint was the first record of one of 12 cardiovascular presentations in any of the data sources. We compared cumulative incidence curves for the initial presentation of cardiovascular disease and used Cox models to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs). This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01804439).
Findings
Our cohort consisted of 1 921 260 individuals, of whom 1 887 062 (98·2%) did not have diabetes and 34 198 (1·8%) had type 2 diabetes. We observed 113 638 first presentations of cardiovascular disease during a median follow-up of 5·5 years (IQR 2·1—10·1). Of people with type 2 diabetes, 6137 (17·9%) had a first cardiovascular presentation, the most common of which were peripheral arterial disease (reported in 992 [16·2%] of 6137 patients) and heart failure (866 [14·1%] of 6137 patients). Type 2 diabetes was positively associated with peripheral arterial disease (adjusted HR 2·98 [95% CI 2·76—3·22]), ischaemic stroke (1·72 [1·52—1·95]), stable angina (1·62 [1·49—1·77]), heart failure (1·56 [1·45—1·69]), and non-fatal myocardial infarction (1·54 [1·42—1·67]), but was inversely associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (0·46 [0·35—0·59]) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (0·48 [0·26—0.89]), and not associated with arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death (0·95 [0·76—1·19]).
Interpretation
Heart failure and peripheral arterial disease are the most common initial manifestations of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. The differences between relative risks of different cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes have implications for clinical risk assessment and trial design.

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Interesante estudio sobre causas de disfuncion beta de pancreas en diabetes

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Factors Associated with Beta-Cell Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes: The BETADECLINE Study
// PLOS ONE Alerts: New Articles

by Giuseppina T. Russo, Carlo Bruno Giorda, Stefania Cercone, Antonio Nicolucci, Domenico Cucinotta, on behalf of BetaDecline Study Group

Aims
Beta-cell dysfunction is an early event in the natural history of type 2 diabetes. However, its progression is variable and potentially influenced by several clinical factors. We report the baseline data of the BetaDecline study, an Italian prospective multicenter study on clinical predictors of beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

Materials and Methods
Clinical, lifestyle, and laboratory data, including circulating levels of inflammatory markers and non-esterified fatty acids, were collected in 507 type 2 diabetic outpatients on stable treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs or diet for more than 1 year. Beta-cell dysfunction was evaluated by calculating the proinsulin/insulin ratio (P/I).

Results
At baseline, the subjects in the upper PI/I ratio quartile were more likely to be men and receiving secretagogue drugs; they also showed a borderline longer diabetes duration (P = 0.06) and higher serum levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. An inverse trend across all PI/I quartiles was noted for BMI and serum levels of total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-C, HDL-C and C reactive protein (CRP), and with homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-B) and HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values (P<0.05 for all). At multivariate analysis, the risk of having a P/I ratio in the upper quartile was higher in the subjects on secretagogue drugs (odds ratio [OR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6–6.9) and in the males (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9).

Conclusions
In the BetaDecline study population, baseline higher PI/I values, a marker of beta-cell dysfunction, were more frequent in men and in patients on secretagogues drugs. Follow-up of this cohort will allow the identification of clinical predictors of beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetic outpatients.

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Disminucion de riesgo cardiovascular con IECA Y ARAII en diabetes

Abstract (provisional)
Background
The effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on cardiovascular (CV) risk in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) are uncertain. Our objective was to analyze the effects of ACE/ARBs, on the incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, CV events, and all-cause mortality in hypertensive patients with T2 DM.

Method
PubMed and Embase databases were searched through January 2014 to identify studies meeting a priori inclusion criteria and references in the published articles were also reviewed. Two investigators independently extracted the information with either fixed-effect model or random-effect model to assess the effects of ACE/ARBs treatment in hypertensive patients with T2 DM.

Results
Ten randomized controlled studies were included with a total of 21,871 participants. Overall, treatment with ACE/ARBs in hypertensive patients with T2 DM was associated with a statistically significant 10% reduction in CV events, pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 0.90 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.82-0.98] with no heterogeneity (I2 = 19.50%; P =0.275);and 17% reduction in CV mortality, pooled HR of 0.83 [95% CI: 0.72-0.96] with no heterogeneity (I2 = 0.9%; P =0.388). ACE/ARBs was not associated with MI, stroke and all-cause mortality.

Conclusions
Treatment with ACE/ARBs results in significant reduction in CV events and mortality in hypertensive patients with T2 DM.

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2261/14/148/abstract

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HbA1c como diagnostico de diabetes

Abstract: The 2014 American Diabetes Association guidelines denote four means of diagnosing diabetes. The first of these is a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >6.5%. This literature review summarizes studies (n=47) in the USA examining the significance, strengths, and limitations of using HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes, relative to other available means. Due to the relatively recent adoption of HbA1c as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic tool, a hybrid systematic, truncated review of the literature was implemented. Based on these studies, we conclude that HbA1c screening for diabetes has been found to be convenient and effective in diagnosing diabetes. HbA1c screening is particularly helpful in community-based and acute care settings where tests requiring fasting are not practical. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes also has some limitations. For instance, HbA1c testing may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes, particularly among whites. Because this bias differs by racial group, prevalence and resulting estimates of health disparities based on HbA1c screening differ from those based on other methods of diagnosis. In addition, existing evidence suggests that HbA1c screening may not be valid in certain subgroups, such as children, women with gestational diabetes, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and those with prediabetes. Further guidelines are needed to clarify the appropriate use of HbA1c screening in these populations.

http://www.dovepress.com/significance-of-hba1c-and-its-measurement-in-the-diagnosis-of-diabetes-peer-reviewed-article-DMSO

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Los trigliceridos cuentan por separado en el riesgo cardiovascular de los diabeticos tipo 2

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Plasma triglycerides predict ten-years all-cause mortality in outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a longitudinal observational study
// BioMed Central – Latest Articles

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). American Diabetes Association standards of care set a series of targets recommended for the CVD prevention: blood pressure, LDL and HDL cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglycerides and HbA1c goals. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors in a T2DM outpatient population in order to estimate their specific clinical value in predicting long-term overall mortality. Methods: Our study population was composed of 1917 T2DM outpatients attending the hospital-based Diabetes Clinic of Ferrara for a mean follow-up period of 10?years; recorded information included personal, clinical and biochemical data, and pharmacological treatment. Results: A Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed, pointing out as age (HR:1.08; IC95%: 1.06-1.11), sex (males: HR:1.97; IC95%: 1.26-3.07), mean triglycerides levels during follow-up (III vs I tertile: HR:1.87; IC95%: 1.12-3.12) and lipid-lowering treatment (HR:0.56; IC95%: 0.35-0.90) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality, independent of confounding factors such as mean values of LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c, blood pressure, BMI, fasting glucose, and antihypertensive and antidiabetic treatment. Conclusions: This finding suggests that more attention should be given to the management of cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetic patients with high triglycerides levels.
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Deficit de vitamina B12 en metformina+sulfonilureas

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Higher Prevalence of Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Sulfonylurea Combination Compared with Insulin Combination in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study
// PLOS ONE Alerts: New Articles

by Donghoon Kang, Jae-Seung Yun, Sun-Hye Ko, Tae-Seok Lim, Yu-Bae Ahn, Yong-Moon Park, Seung-Hyun Ko

Long-term and high-dose treatment with metformin is known to be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether the prevalence of B12 deficiency was different in patients treated with different combination of hypoglycemic agents with metformin during the same time period. A total of 394 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and sulfonylurea (S+M group, n = 299) or metformin and insulin (I+M group, n = 95) were consecutively recruited. The vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified using the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12≤300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate>4 ng/mL). The mean age of and duration of diabetes in the subjects were 59.4±10.5 years and 12.2±6.7 years, respectively. The mean vitamin B12 level of the total population was 638.0±279.6 pg/mL. The mean serum B12 levels were significantly lower in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (600.0±266.5 vs. 757.7±287.6 pg/mL, P<0.001). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the metformin-treated patients was significantly higher in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (17.4% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.001). After adjustment for various factors, such as age, sex, diabetic duration, duration or daily dose of metformin, diabetic complications, and presence of anemia, sulfonylurea use was a significant independent risk factor for B12 deficiency (OR = 4.74, 95% CI 1.41–15.99, P = 0.012). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with metformin combined with sulfonylurea require clinical attention for vitamin B12 deficiency and regular monitoring of their vitamin B12 levels.
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Rehabilitacion y ejercicio físico en EPOC

Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether people with moderate to severe COPD who are participating in pulmonary rehabilitation and exercising at high intensity demonstrate the changes in ventilatory parameters that are associated with decreased dyspnea.
Data sources: The authors searched EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases up to December 2013 for relevant randomized control trials, systematic reviews, and observational studies. References of identified studies were also screened.
Study selection: Studies conducted in a pulmonary rehabilitation setting that included education and exercise were included. Symptom-limited, graded exercise testing that measured tidal volume, respiratory rate, minute ventilation, and inspiratory capacity was required. The studies that contained these keywords in the title or the abstract were selected for further evaluation of the text. Disagreements between reviewers were resolved by consensus. Four studies met these inclusion criteria.
Data extraction: Quality assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Risk of bias and quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.
Data synthesis: Participants in three studies trained at high intensity (70%–80% maximum workload), demonstrating statistically significant changes in tidal volume and respiratory rate. One study did not demonstrate positive ventilatory benefits; however, participants may not have met the desired training intensity. Two studies reported improvement in dyspnea at submaximal exercise intensities. One study noted an increased maximum workload with no significant change in dyspnea at peak exercise.
Conclusion: People with moderate to severe, stable COPD were able to perform high intensity exercise, which was associated with positive changes in ventilatory parameters and dyspnea. A number of factors limit the generalizability of these results to people participating in pulmonary rehabilitation.

The effects of high intensity exercise during pulmonary rehabilitation | COPD
http://www.dovepress.com/the-effects-of-high-intensity-exercise-during-pulmonary-rehabilitation-peer-reviewed-article-COPD

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